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Some industrial and commercial buildings can reach heights of over sixty stories. Obviously, when these buildings are being constructed, they need equally tall cranes to transport the supplies to the higher floors. There are cranes that are operated from the rear of trucks or other types which have their own vehicle attached. Tower cranes are the largest ones on the market.
Tower cranes are the stand-alone structures which are normally seen on high-rise building projects. Usually, they are part of a major city's downtown skyline. Wherever new construction like skyscrapers or apartment buildings and commercial facilities like for instance shopping center are being constructed, chances are a crane would be on site.
The two major types of cranes could be distinguished by the manner in which their boom or jib lifts supplies. The jib is the metal frame that extends from the main section. On a flat tower crane, the jib remains horizontal as it lifts items. On a luffing kind of tower crane, the jib can ratchet to upward or downward angles. The lifting capacity for both kinds can range from 30 pounds to 10,000 lbs.
The crane's body is composed of a mast. This is a vertical steel frame which is a combination of separate parts. In order to increase the overall height of the machine, sections are added. The mast extends upward to wherever the desired height is, to the control module, that is a small room which has glass windows on all four sides or to the tower as it is also referred to. The crane operator works from inside of the tower.
In order to lift supplies, the crane utilizes a braided metal cord. The cord extends all the way to the end of the boom or jib from a motor located near the control module. There is a pulley system situated at the end of the jib, through which the cord is positioned and lowered down. The jib which holds the cord becomes balanced by a counter jib located on the tower's opposite side. The counter jib has weights. These weights help to prevent the crane from tipping over when raising heavy materials.
The hydraulic truck crane is a specialized mobile crane that utilizes hydraulic power to raise and move thousands of pounds. Hydraulics makes use of forces being transmitted through oil pushing in opposite directions on the pistons of the boom in order to lift thousands of pounds. Hydraulic truck cranes are important in building major projects like for instance airports, bridges, roads and buildings. A crane can accomplish in minutes jobs that would normally take hundreds of men and a lot of hours to complete.
The great machinery are commonly utilized in the building of cities, houses, entire nations and individual buildings throughout the ages. Even Egypt's Great Pyramids were likely built using basic cranes to enable the heaviest supplies in one of the most awesome construction projects of all time.
The first representation of a crane was showcased during King Ramses' reign in Egypt during 3000 B.C. This was a portrayal of a lifting mechanism which was used to collect water. The very first official "cranes" appeared during Ancient Greece. These devices were used to build a whole nation in the 5th century B.C.
These cranes were initially made out of wood. The designs of cranes began to change when dockyards started to need stronger and larger machinery. Hick & Rothwell developed the very first cast iron cranes within Bolton, England, during the year 1834. This equipment can lift up to 2 tons. That same year, the addition of wire rope was added to the crane by an Official of the German Superior Board, Herr Albert Sr. The wire rope made the crane stronger and more durable. This addition enabled cranes to have a bigger capacity to lift heavy weights.
The wire ropes were weaved together forming a more powerful rope with even more strength. The newly formed wire also added more flexibility. Germany started to make cast iron cranes 4 years later. The very first cast iron crane made by Germany was made within Neuburg.